Kiefer, Michael J. and William H. Marinell. The Research Alliance for New York City Schools, New York University, April 2012. This study examines achievement and attendance changes between grades 4-8. Among the findings are that students whose attendance falls during the middle grades are particularly at risk for not being able to graduate from high school. However, these students can be identified early on through fourth grade attendance rates and test scores, and changes in the middle grades can help identify which students will struggle during high school.