Gottfried, Michael A. American Educational Research Journal, June 2010, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 434-465. This study evaluates the connection between student attendance and positive learning outcomes. The researcher uses a comprehensive data set of elementary and middle schools in the Philadelphia school district to explore the causal impact of attendance on multiple measures of achievement, including grade-point average and standardized test scores. He controlled for student and neighborhood characteristics, as well as school, grade and other elements. The study showed a direct and consistent causal relationship between good attendance and good academic school outcomes in the K-5 and 6-8 schools.